Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Digital Technology and Business Operating Systems

It is often noted that two major worldwide events are responsible for changes not only to the lives of ordinary people who make up the target markets of business organizations, but also to the operations of the said business themselves. These events are namely: The advent of globalized trade and recent technological advances. Globalization of human activities including trade has meant that business are constantly being exposed to new environments, new markets with unique and often discerning preferences and on the loop-side, the ever present threat of competition vying for a similar market slice as the said businesses (Kehal & Singh, 2008).It is not surprising therefore, when the need to gain a competitive advantage over rivals has been the dominating theme in the board rooms of a majority of companies; with technology increasingly being seen as key to achieving success in this task (Kehal & Singh, 2008). Dependent on the industry, technology could imply many different things.For com panies in the manufacturing sector, technology could mean the acquisition of a new machine that eases the manufacturing task at hand; while for others like those in horticulture industry, technology could mean adoption of a new way to inter-crop plants in order to eradicate disease thus improve on yields. However, digital technologies have found a place in a multitude of businesses as they offer various advantages that cut across the board such as fastening communication and the retrieval of data (Kehal & Singh, 2008).Digital technologies refers to what is conventionally refereed to as Information communication technology (Watkins, 2010). This encompasses computers and related internet based media such as email and social networking platforms (Watkins, 2010). Digital technologies also includes any form of networks in an organization including those restricted to operate within the organization, the intranet, and connections between a company and outside affiliated organizations such as suppliers and distributors termedDigital Technology in Business 2 as the extrenet (Watkins, 2010). To define the operations of a company: These refer to the set systems, procedures and the information that guides them, that enable an organization to integrate, organize and normalize its primary processes in order to achieve its set goals (Daft & Marcic, 2008). For integration to be considered optimum, data in the company's domain should be accessible to all involved in both a timely and eased manner (Weil, 2010).On the other hand, normalization in this context involves the standardization of an organization's business processes by getting rid of variations in business procedures among employees and departments (Weil, 2010). Different organizations have different operating systems, with each system suited to the organization in question (Weil, 2010). For instance, Cisco, a network solutions provider has made it possible for small businesses to acquire information communication te chnology based solutions by developing them and making them available through their partners worldwide.Procter & Gamble on the other hand, has established local marketing arms which are allowed the leeway to strategize on how best they would exploit their immediate markets with other core services like human resource management and informational technology services centralized and standardized by the parent company (Weil, 2010). Though these models differ, that is of importance is not their apparent schism, but whether the chosen operating model has a chance at achieving success in the organization ( Watkins, 2010).The success of an operating system, is dependent on the organization's staff and management's uptake of the operating system, their willingness to follow it through and whether they are well equipped to make it work for the organization (Watkins, 2010). However, as noted above, the motivation for any operating business is to achieve success in the midst of competing inter ests and changing business environment ( Kehal & Singh, 2008). This need by organizations has lead to wide scale adaptation of new organization forms Digital Technology in Business 3 heavily influenced by digital technologies (Kehal & Singh, 2008).This is because mounting evidence suggests that digital technologies enable the core activities in any business operating model, integration and normalization, to take place more smoothly when compared to any other strategy (Weil, 2010). This paper by use of examples drawn from various industries, elaborates on these points, taking special note of how digital technologies have shaped the operating models of companies, influenced the workings of the human resource aspect of a business, including both the benefits and challenges of digital technologies in organizations (Malecki & Moriset, 2008).Starting with the a look at the processes involved in the sensitive service industry such as the airline industry quite often the supports to an airl ine, namely those involved with maintainance, overhaul and repair of aircraft required to fill in detailed reports of the process such as the tools involved and the spare parts used during maintenance for the airline's documentation purposes( SITA, 2008).This process may turn out to be tideious and riddled with inefficiencies as it may involve filling in of similar details like the type of aircraft and the organization owning repeatedly (SITA, 2008). Such tasks can be eased by adoption of digital technologies such as the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) hand held readers that would capture information from RFID enabled aircraft parts and simultaneously share them with interested parties along the supply chain (SITA, 2008).The automation described above confers the airline company with several competitive advantages such as improvement of relations with suppliers by facilitating their work therefore improving on its business operations (SITA, 2008). Through this automated system, it becomes easier for the company to trace the parts used on their planes thus giving them the advantage of authenticating their reliability and quality; a factor that may go a long way in vouching for their Digital Technology in Business 4Â  safety record while at the same time, reducing on the operating costs of the airline (SITA, 2008).The centralized data received from the readers may help in streamlining of the procurement process of the airline leading to a decrease in resource wastefulness and also gives the airline stability in terms of delivery of their core services, air transport, by ensuring that flight cancellations due to delays in maintenance or unnecessary unscheduled maintenance problems do not disrupt operations leading to flight delays and cancellations ( SITA, 2008).However, such centralized systems of data collection may pose some challenges to those involved. For instance, the ownership of the data may turn out to be a point of friction among the part ies as the shared nature of collection and storage of the data may lead to challenges in the access and security of the data (SITA, 2008). In addition, for such a system to operate effectively, the participation of a wide group of corporations is necessary (SITA, 2008).This may be a challenge for the corporations as issues such as who will finance the initial part of the adoption of digital technology may arise while later on as alluded above, disputes over the ownership of this system may arise while during operation, the costs involved in maintaining the digital technology may be problematic in terms of who will bear the burden of the cost especially if the problem is arising from one end of the system leading to problems at the nether end (SITA, 2008). Digital technologies also offer ways in which employee productivity can be improved thus improving on the outcome of the corporation.Several areas in which digital technology can be of use in the development of internet based emplo yee induction platforms which will enable the company introduce new employees into the company operating culture in a more engaging and interactive manner (Murphy, 2003). The costs involved in such a venture also tend to be less costly in the ;long run as the initial resources, human resource and capital, needed to set up the program can be minimized and even eventually eliminated once the system had been set up Digital Technology in Business 5Â  without any losses in quality of the process (Murphy, 2003)Training process that is critical in human resource development and management in a corporation can also be aided by use of digital materials such as compact disks (CD). This not only provides a format of presenting the information in a easier to understand media forms such as videos and graphic illustrations, it also provides a reference library to the employee who in need and at will can reference back to aspects of the training program (Murphy, 2003).Use of such media such as CD and internet will allow training of employees who are based in areas other than where the actual training is occurring especially in corporations with branches in far flung markets as is the case I the globalized economy (Murphy, 2003). The employee also benefits from the opportunity of going through the training at their own pace and time , therefore improving on the likelihood of uptake of the information (Murphy, 2003). The other area where digital technologies offer advantages to corporations is in the area of employee incentives (Murphy, 2003).Through the platform of the internet, a company can offer employees opportunities of enrolling into affiliate programs earning them income, or they could be privy to discounts and offers from third party suppliers who deal with their employers (Murphy, 2003). for instance special mortgage rates may be offered to employees of a certain company via the mortgaging subsidiary of the bank that their employer's use to transact their business o perations (Murphy, 2003).These strategies may go along way mot only in motivating employees but also in enabling the company retain its talented and trained employees by ensuring their their loyally to the company thus reducing on a company's recruitment and training bill (Murphy, 2003). The benefits of digital technology enables a company reorganize its marketing strategy in order for exploit their niche as effectively as possible (Rust & Espinoza, 2006).This is made Digital Technology in Business 6Â  possible by the room afforded in matters of gauging customer preference, dislikes and other characteristics during the process of market segmentation (Rust & Espinoza, 2006). Through portals like social media and internet based survey's a company may gain useful insights about their consumers as these digital technologies offer a cost effective, non – intrusive and consumer friendly means of interaction; therefore bridging the gap between a company's management and its the cus tomers (Rust & Espinoza, 2006).These benefits spill over as they contribute to customer loyalty making the customer feel that their opinion is valued and by providing them with the rare opportunity of being involved in the development of their favorite product or service ( Rust & Espinoza, 2006). Quality control management is a critical part of a company's operations as it provides the means by which a company can keep the promises exhaulted by its brand to the market (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008).failure in the quality management system may lead to not only costly changes in the brand image, but also to enormous costs involved in product recalls and in brushes with regulatory authorities (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008). Many problems in the quality control management occur when there are variations in the execution of processes or in the material used in producing a good or service (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008).The use of digital technologies may shield a company from such eventualities by pe riodically and automatically surveying the production process for deviations in the norm and alerting the management of possible shortfalls in the system (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008). Digital technology based quality assurance systems are more reliable as they are not dependent on human schedules and shielded from human borne errors during production (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008). Internet based systems also allow fro the survey of the intricate details of different aspects of the production process even for companies that have outsourcedDigital Technology in Business 7 production either as a whole or in bits across geographically dispersed areas (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008). An example of this is in the manufacture of airplanes by the Boeing and airbus whose different parts are assembled in different regions of the world. The reporting is also made easier especially in the event of a breach in the quality of the product, with the source of error pinpointed and dealt with saving on costs a nd time ( Malecki, & Moriset, 2008). Recently, a new form of trade has arisen where transactions in both goods and services are carried out via the internet (Burgess, 2002).The producer of the good may be on one end of the world while the consumer may be at the other (Burgess, 2002). Digital technologies provide for ways in which the buyer and seller can meet irrespective of the distances and time zones involved (Burgess, 2002). The seller benefits by finding a market fir their goods while the buyer benefits by having the leeway to ‘window shop' through out the internet searching for their ideal product at the ideal price without the hustle of dealing with salesmen (Burgess, 2002).In addition the direct contact between the buyer and seller enables for customization of the process to suit either party (Burgess, 2002). This is especially advantageous for small businesses who lack the machinery, resource and human investment needed to carry out an effective marketing campaign as large corporations (Burgess, 2002). Quite effectively backed by a single personal computer connected onto the internet and a a ‘one-man-army' sales team an entrepreneur can achieve their business goals (Burgess, 2002).This trade termed as e-commerce, has enabled individuals like authors sell their services even without an established local network of suppliers and distributors (Burgess, 2002). Large corporations are also increasingly joining this bandwagon by providing portals like ‘e- shops' on their websites where special offers of their products can be viewed, purchased and ordered right to the customer's doorstep (Burgess, 2002).By use of sophisticated but easily accessible forms of Digital Technology in Business 8forms of digital technologies the process of market segmentation described above are at the reach of entrepreneurs who otherwise would not have been able to exploit such advantages (Burgess, 2002). The small business owner is able to make up for his lower e mployee base and human resource pool by automating a majority of their business processes such as the installation of electronic tax register teller machines may ease the process of filling for tax returns (Burgess, 2002).The operations of small businesses may also be expanded by collaboration with partners following research on the internet without the huge costs involved in expansion such as the hiring of additional staff, the payment for new business premises and the sometimes bureaucratic processes involved in meeting local regulatory standards and licensing issues (Burgess, 2002).Through digital technologies, owners of small businesses are offered tools by which they can advertise their businesses effectively but with minimal costs such as the use of promotional CD for a musician or a recording company, easy to use software that enable the design of eye catching and effective banners, posters and fliers and through the setting up of a website where additional information about the company's services is accessible to the market ( Burgess, 2002).Despite these advantages of the use of digital technologies in business operations, the process in usually fraught by many difficulties as alluded in some of the examples above. Some of the challenges are secondary to inadequate knowledge on the scope by which digital technologies can affect the operations of a company thus leading to the wrong choice made in the technology that would be of use to the organization ( Andriole, 2008).It should be remembered at this juncture that the key notion about operating systems is that they have to be well designed to suit the business they are intended for, thus borrowing examples from other companies is encouraged but it should not be done in a ‘cut- and- paste manner' ( Andriole, 2008). For instance, Digital Technology in Business 9 a server, which is a computer with high processing capability, would be more suitable fore a small company with few employees while a singl e personal computer may suffice for a single proprietorship.Conversely a larger organization with several departments and more employees, would benefit more from several interconnected severs ( Andriole, 2008). However other challenges to digital technology arise from the human aspect of the process (Andriole, 2008). Sometimes employees, through their unions, may resist the adoption of digital technology influenced operating systems due to fears arising about the likelihood of loss of employment and income via automation of processes (Daft & Marcic, 2008).In a large manufacturing plant, the quality of goods produced may be checked by a string of employees stationed along the conveyor belts, automation of this process by use of specialized robots run by sophisticated computers, may render a large group of people jobless. This may hinder the newly instituted operating system to problems (Daft,& Marcic, 2008).The challenges of operating in digital technology may arise from difficulties in operating in the new environment due to inadequacy in skills and expertise to utilize the the digital l technology (Murphy, 2003). This is a problem as the new technology instead of complimenting the employees and mangement, it serves to slow down the working of the organization as both groups may view digital technology as a stumbling block thus preferring to ignore or under utilize it by doing things the old way (Murphy, 2003).This scenario is more pronounced in situations where the technology being introduced has been imported and is new to the business environment of the company (Murphy, 2003). This is because of the lack of adequate local support to smoothen the process of adoption by providing technical support (Murphy, 2003). The main challenge with digital technologies, lies in the costs involved in setting up and maintaining them (Andriole, 2008). The machinery involved may be costly especially for smallDigital Technology in Business 10 businesses and very large corpora tions, software to run computer's is also costly and the maintenance of such systems often requires specialized manpower which may come at a premium (Andriole, 2008). When this is coupled with the rapid evolutionary tendency of digital technologies which render recently developed technologies as obsolete, it is easy to see why cost is frequently mentioned as a major stumbling block (Andriole, 2008).In some situations, there might be the need of hiring additional staff just to maintain the system, training staff to know how to use the system every time the system is upgraded and this may turn into a demoralizing process (Andriole, 2008) .. In conclusion, this essay has highlighted the influence of digital technologies on the operations of organizations be they be simple small businesses or large multinationals dealing in several products and services (Malecki & Moriset, 2008).The challenges though apparent can be overcome by understanding digital technologies and keeping the goals an d objectives of the organization in mind as the solution appears to lie in crafting an operating system that is in tandem with the organization's goals and vision (Daft & Marcic, 2008). The management of an organization should desists from taking a one-size-fits -all approach and should also consider the impact that their employees may have on the success of the digital technologies in thee organization's operations (Kehal & Singh, 2005).

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

The Boy, the Girl, the Fairy Captain, and the Hermits Essay

*LEADERSHIP ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MBA 610 Pr. Dan Yates, Ph.D Makhtar Sagna, MBA Candidate T HE B OY , T HE G IRL , T HE F ERRY C APTAIN , A ND THE H ERMITS Case 1 QUESTIONS 1. List in order the characters in this story that you like, from most to least. What values governed your choices? 2. Rate the characters on their level of moral development. Explain. 3. Evaluate each characters level of courage. Discuss. The Leadership Experience: University of Findlay Edition 9/23/2012 9/23/2012 The Boy, the Girl, the Ferry Captain, and the Hermits Case 1 There was an island, and on this island there lived a girl. A short distance away there was another island, and on this island there lived a boy. The boy and†¦show more content†¦I have no choice but to have empathy for a young lady although in my opinion I certainly feel that she still had the opportunity to make the right choice at some point and that she is equally responsible for what happened to her. Her mind is profoundly filled with ambiguity when it comes down to ethics, loyalty, and doing the right thing. #5 ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · Corruption Dishonesty Self-interest Unfairness Deceptiveness Indecency Abuse Exploitation Crudeness Repulsiveness He is very despicable and there is nothing to like about him. He is the embodiment of immorality, indecency and ethical disgust. ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · Cowardice Selfishness Self-Centeredness Coldness Indifference lack of Transparency Laziness Not really likeable either. He represents selfishness, coldness, and cowardice. He has no telling courage and not willing to help anyone. ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · Personal Courage Mindfulness Trustworthiness Conscientiousness Empathy Servant Leadership Active/reflective Listening Adaptability to a situation He is the most likeable for being very nice to the girl and for doing everything that is in his power to help someone in need. He did it unselfishly and his

Monday, December 30, 2019

Morality of Abortion - 1478 Words

Morality of Abortion For the past couple of decades, the issue of abortion has been the most heated topic debated in the United States. When considering this topic, one must look at three things: ethics, emotions and the law; for all of these are important to this issue. Like any debate, there are two sides to this issue: pro-choice and pro-life. The people who are pro- abortion say that the mother is the ultimate person to decide to abort a pregnancy and that the government should not get involved. On the other hand, a person against abortion would state that from the time of conception, the embryo/fetus is considered a human being. By aborting one is committing murder and taking away that human beings life, liberty and the pursuit†¦show more content†¦They will pay for all the expenses that the pregnancy may incur. When looking at the case of therapeutics abortion, it is quite different. Many times when a woman is pregnant, some complications arise and there can be a threat to both the growing fetus and the mother. Sometime nature has its own way of stopping the pregnancy which can avoid danger to the mother. This is called a miscarriage and this stops the fetus from growing. But there are also many times that this does not happen. There have been many instances when the life of the mother is in danger during a pregnancy. Without aborting the pregnancy the mother would die and I believe that in this instance abortion can be morally justified. During these complications the growing babies have a higher chance of death so instead of having both, the mother and the child, die; by aborting the pregnancy, at least one life can be saved. I think that this would be one of the exceptions where abortion could be plausible and perhaps morally justified. Another circumstance in which abortion can be justified is in the case of rape. There are thousands of rapes that occur each year, and some of the times these rapes lead to pregnancy. The violent experience itself brings down a harsh reality on the woman in question. Many times the rapist is a ‘known person, and the woman must now also deal with a huge breach of trust among other repercussions of the assault she hasShow MoreRelatedAbortion : The Morality Of Abortion1442 Words   |  6 Pagesdebated topics in bioethics is the morality of abortion, or the ending of a pregnancy without physically giving birth to an infant. Often times abortions are categorized into either spontaneous, a natural miscarriage; induced or intentional, which is premeditated and for any reason; or therapeutic, which albeit intentional, its sole purpose is to save the mother’s life. It seems however that moral conflicts on issue mainly arise when discussing induced abortions. In general, people universally agreeRead MoreAbortion And The Morality Of It921 Words   |  4 PagesAbortion and the morality of it has been a hot topic for years in the United States although it has been carried out for centuries in different cultures. Abortion is a medical procedure deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Abortions usually happen within the first 28 weeks of pregnancy and are considered an outpatient procedure. The first abortion laws were passed by Britain in 1803 and by 1880 most abortions in the U.S. were illegal, except for those that were performed to save the life of a womanRead MoreIs The Morality Of Abortions?956 Words   |  4 PagesThe topic I choose to discuss is the morality of abortions. Merriam-Webster defines abortion as the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus. Abortion has been a very controversial matter and the ongoing controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of induced a bortion. Some individuals are pro life and completely against it; they feel that abortion is immoral is because it is the intentional killing of a human beingRead MoreThe Morality Of The Abortion Of A Fetus1948 Words   |  8 PagesIntroduction: In this essay, the morality of the abortion of a fetus will be discussed in a drama involving a married couple named Deb and Derek (Smolkin, Bourgeois Findler, 2010).  For clarification purposes, we must first define the topic of this discussion; abortion is defined as the act in which a female voluntarily terminates her pregnancy where this act is legally permitted (Warren, 1973). Deb who is 16 weeks pregnant discovers that the fetus she is carrying will most likely be born mentallyRead MoreThe Morality of Abortion Essay1413 Words   |  6 PagesThe Morality of Abortion On the question of abortion being moral, the answer is clearly that terminating a fetus life under certain circumstances is not only moral, but it is also our responsibility to terminate it if the quality of life is in question for the fetus. A second major reason is that to declare abortion immoral would mean that we would have to consider the factor of how the conception came about. This cannot and should not be done. Quality is a major factor in the questionRead MoreA Debate On The Morality Of Abortion1575 Words   |  7 Pagesthat makes sense to me and that has moral significance is clearly our ability to love, to put the needs of others before ourselves, and do it regardless of the personnel cost. Without this ability we would not even be having a debate on the morality of abortion. Thus I am arguing that the human ability to love and have a moral compass is what gives us our inherent value. Some might object that I added the potential clause to the sentence â€Å"To be human is to be at once a member of the species Homo sapiensRead MoreThe Legality And Morality Of Abortion1103 Words   |  5 Pages The legality and morality of abortion is a huge topic in today’s society. Are there ever times when it is justified? Who has a say in the matter of whether or not it is justified? How does one know how to justify abortion? â€Å"Given a particular pregnancy, who should decide whether or not it ought to be terminated?† (Jaggar, 218) People argue over whether or not the unborn child has the right to life or does the woman have the right to her own body. Other party’s possibly involved are the stateRead More The Morality of Abortions Essay2719 Words   |  11 PagesThe Morality of Abortions Abortion’s legalization through Supreme Court’s Roe v. Wade, has allowed for one in three pregnancies to end in abortion. This means that 1.5 million abortions are performed in the United States each year (Flanders 3). It ranks among the most complex and controversial issues, arousing heated legal, political, and ethical debates. The modern debate over abortion is a conflict of competing moral ideas and of fundamental human rights: to life, to privacy, to control overRead MoreThe Morality of Abortion Essay examples1494 Words   |  6 PagesThe Morality of Abortion Abortion is the termination of a foetus whilst in the womb and is a constantly argued issue in todays society. Whether abortion is moral or immoral depends on many topics and on one particular topic; when does life start? In 1976 the Abortion act was made active in England and Wales. This allowed the termination of a foetus aged up to 28 weeks, and for the first time women had the right to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. However limitationsRead MoreMorality Of Abortion s Argument1207 Words   |  5 Pages Morality of Abortion Counter-Argument Kyle Pedigo PHI 103: Informal Logic Micheal Pelt August 29, 2015 â€Æ' Morality of Abortion This paper is written to present a counter argument. This is a counter argument to a debate that has been around for a very long time and likely will not go away any time soon. The topic I will be covering is: Does the stage of pregnancy affect the morality of abortion? In my opinion I have to say no. But, my opinion is not the subject of this paper. My original argument

Sunday, December 22, 2019

In The Short Essay, “Is Forgiving Student Loan Debt A Good

In the short essay, â€Å"Is Forgiving Student Loan Debt a Good Idea?† by Kaya Webley, she illustrates through validations that student debt is a problem, but Applebaum’s proposal brings about political and economic problems. One of her validations is that most people can afford their student loans. She also states that only a small handful of graduates leave school with an unbearable student debt. Webley touches upon programs that are already in place to help pay off college debt. Another one of her validations is that the bank does not care if the student can not pay the student loan, the banks will get the money one way or another. In addition, because of the banks colleges have no motivation to lower tuition. Lastly, she writes about†¦show more content†¦Because of this essay I feel more enlightened about college debt. In addition, I want to sign as many positions I can to lower and forgive college debt. Most of Webley’s validations encourage me to f ind a solution to college debt. For instance, she said that the real question is how do we lower college tuition. One day I hope everyone can get an education, who wants it and who will work for it, and not have to worry about the money. Instead they could put more time and effort into broadening their minds. ADD should be longest part!!!!! The appeal to the character of the writer is known as ethos. Writers need to be informed, intelligent, honest, and respectful. Ethos is present in this essay through the writing technique of Kayla Webley. I would assume she is a credible source because she is published in Time magazine. Also she did her undergraduate work at University of Washington studying political science and journalism. Her graduate work was done at Northern University in new media. Webley is informed because she gives solid evidence that support her validations and main argument. I would consider her to be intelligent because she has detailed reasoning and uses successful t actics to persuade her readers. Honesty can be seen through Webley’s realistic point of view. She does not try to beat around the bush she gets straight to the problem in Applebaum’s proposal. Finally, she challenges peoples in a respectful way,Show MoreRelatedIs Forgiving Student Loan Debt A Good Idea?1009 Words   |  5 PagesKayla Webley, in her essay â€Å"Is Forgiving Student Loan Debt a Good Idea?† states Robert Applebaum’s solution for student loan debt is a â€Å"radical and wildly unfeasible solution† in both economically and politically. Applebaum’s proposal is to â€Å"provide a one-time bailout of student debt†¦as a way to stimulate the still-limping economy.† However, Webley counters the solution has to have â€Å"the purported benefited and fairness of a one-time student loan bailout.† In Webley’s essay, in the sixth paragraphRead MoreIs Forgiving Student Loan Debt A Good Idea?1227 Words   |  5 PagesKayla Webley, in her essay â€Å"Is Forgiving Student Loan Debt a Good Idea?† states Robert Applebaum’s solution for student loan debt is a â€Å"radical and wildly unfeasible solution both economically and politically. Applebaum’s proposal is to â€Å"provide a one-time bailout of student debt†¦as a way to stimulate the still-limping economy.† However, Webley counters that the solution has to have â€Å"the purported benefited and fairness of a one-time student loan bailout.† In Webley’s essay, in the sixth paragraphRead MoreShould Governmental Financial Aid Be Merit Based? 2081 Words   |  8 PagesArgumentative Essay: Should governmental financial aid be merit based? According to the National Center for Education Statistics, around 20 million people enroll in college each year. More than 90 percent of these people wouldn’t be able to afford this journey if it weren’t for financial aid received. While it is true that some financial aid comes from scholarships based on merit, according to the National Center for Education Statistics, most government aid is based on financial need. The numberRead MoreLesson Plan10685 Words   |  43 PagesReport on Student Teaching In- Campus Practicum Off- Campus Practicum Presented to the BSED Intern Supervisor Of Holy Child College of Davao Mrs. Miriam Capilitan In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement Professional Education 10 (Practice Teaching) Presented by: Ms. Rogelyn P. Goboy BSED- IV March 02, 2013 Second Semester SY: 2012- 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Dedication†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Philosophy of Education†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Student TeachersRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesPsychological Resiliency 139 Social Resiliency 143 Temporary Stress-Reduction Techniques 144 SKILL ANALYSIS 147 Cases Involving Stress Management 147 The Turn of the Tide 147 The Case of the Missing Time 150 SKILL PRACTICE 155 Exercises for Long-Term and Short-Run Stress Management The Small-Wins Strategy 155 Life-Balance Analysis 156 Deep Relaxation 158 Monitoring and Managing Time 159 SKILL APPLICATION 161 Activities for Managing Stress 161 Suggested Assignments 161 Application Plan and Evaluation 162Read MoreIgbo Dictionary129408 Words   |  518 Pagesand Culture. A dictionary of Standard Igbo is now seriously needed; it is hoped that the present work will be one of the sources for such a dictionary. The complete text was revised in 1976-77 with the assistance of Mr Alphonsus A. Ndife, then a student at the University of Ibadan, who proved to be a gifted lexicographer and added many words, such as the names of fishes, which were not in the first edition. Other words were added or revised from other sources, but in order to keep the size within

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Marx’s Theory of Alienation Free Essays

string(184) " this small scale example in the greater picture we can see that dialectics accepts reality as a set of opposing forces which exist at the same time \(Estefan,A:2002 Acc 10/11/2012\)\." Sociology Essay – Assessment 1 Q. Outline and assess Marx’s concept of Alienation Alienation, a concept that became widely known during the 19th and 20th century has been looked at extensively by a number of leading theorists. Theorists such as Georg Hegel first used the idea of alienation as a philosophic idea, but his work was later grasped upon by theorists known as Ludwig Feuerbach and more importantly Karl Marx. We will write a custom essay sample on Marx’s Theory of Alienation or any similar topic only for you Order Now The world till now has been witness to a change in different social structures and forms in which society operates. We as human beings must ask, what purpose do we serve within society? What means do we have to sustain an effective or prosperous way of living? Marx believed we have been through different economic stages and ownership of the things we need to live, beginning with the times of the ancient to feudalism (land granted from the crown) to now where we have arrived at capitalism (private ownership). He saw this as historical stages of development where each stage has the characteristics of a system of production and division of labour, forms of property ownership and a system of class relations (Morrison,K. 1995:40). This brought forward Marx’s idea of historical materialism which centred on how to interpret the history of mankind and the development of one stage of society to the next. In turn it looks for reasons for changes in human society and how humans together produced the necessary requirements to live. In relation to historical materialism there was another idea of dialectal materialism. This was a term used by Marx to study natural phenomena, the evolution of society and human thought itself as a process of development which rests upon motion and contradiction (Clapp,R: Acc 10/11/2012). Marx further explains historical and dialectical materialism which will be looked at further in the essay. By understanding how humans produce the necessities to live (historical materialism) and how a way of reasoning helps us to see the growth in efficiency of economic orders where in turn they develop contradictions and weaknesses (dialectical materialism), we can begin to look at the idea of alienation and how it exists through expanding economic orders according to Marx. Alienation can be described as an idea where humans are dominated by forces of their own creation, which pose as ‘alien powers’ (Coser: 1977 Acc. 0/11/2012). It is seen that we are subject to psychological or emotional separation from the things we produce and the surplus value that is gained, all be it in the control of private owners in a capitalist climate. There are different ways in which we are separated from these factors. They are the worker from the product of labour, the actual activity of labour, members of society and from our ‘species being’. However both the worker and capitalist suffer forms of alienation which will be discussed further. The purpose of this essay is to outline and assess Marx’s theory of alienation where many forms of separation occur and how different members of society suffer from it, as well as taking into account how historical and dialectical ideas help to give a background to it. Karl Marx who was born in 1818 in Germany was considered as an unconventional theorist. His reputation for being a political economist, philosopher, revolutionary and founder of Communism did not bring people to the typical image of a sociologist. Marx was a strong believer in the materialistic understanding of factors such as social change, class conflict, labour and the organisation of production. He put forward some notions that would help him identify the materialist perspective. So what does historical materialism tell us about history? When using this idea to analyse society we are always looking at the economic base or structure of it. In order for society to live in this sense, we must be able to produce the necessities like food, shelter and clothing in order to do so. The act of production is one of the principle requirements to satisfy human economic needs. Marx also made a comparison of humans to animals where we as humans produce the means to satisfy our primary material needs. For this reason humans are different from animals because humans need to produce the means for survival and when done, they build an active conscious with nature in order to do so (Morrison, K. 1995:40). Another point was that the way humans produce depends on what is already there in nature and what they must to survive. If this is the case then how they exist and how they live will run parallel to what they produce and how they produce. Historical materialism was given a number of main concepts to look at. These were the means of production (necessitates for survival), relations of production (the link between producers and non-producers of physical labour) and the mode of production (changing the way of making a living). By taking these points into account we can see how an economic structure has been formed over different periods of time and how historical materialism helps to look at social processes of human economic work and how it will help give a background to the theory of alienation. Historical materialism serves a link to the dialectical way of thinking as Marx was the first person to merge materialism and dialectics together. The dialectics was a way of thinking to understand the world. Marx was mainly influenced by the theorist Hegel in his younger days, he was a pioneer in understanding philosophic logic through his process of dialectic. This involved looking at natural phenomena, the evolution of society and thought through motion and contradiction with a direct challenge to formal logic. Marx seen that the contradictions and oppositions were paramount to the whole analysis. For example in using dialectics imagine there is tension for a nurse trying to accommodate a client but at the same time we know she is trying to bring change for the client. Using this small scale example in the greater picture we can see that dialectics accepts reality as a set of opposing forces which exist at the same time (Estefan,A:2002 Acc 10/11/2012). You read "Marx’s Theory of Alienation" in category "Essay examples" Moreover by understanding historical and dialectical materialism in nature, society or economy we are able to understand how through different economic periods it gives a background to Marx’s theory of alienation. As we discuss alienation by Marx we first need to analyse the environment he sees it in. Capitalism is an economic system, whereby ownership of factories, materials and machinery for production is the property of private individuals. The term alienation relates to the specific levels of separation that are seen through the production and increasing surplus value by workers. Marx had this idea that private property is the ‘material summary expression’ of estranged labour. Marx highlighted that labour power had a major value where the use of it by the capitalist was turned into surplus value. This labour is something that cannot be similar to work because it has a social relationship that can only identify with capitalism. What he is trying to say is that during the production of goods, physical effort (work) is changed into labour. With an increasing industrial demand for production workers are subject to exploitation, where they are required to work harder to meet demand but still for a wage not in proportion to the work carried out. The wage that the workers receive will fluctuate but will not be in proportion with the increase in productivity, the increased input turns into surplus value in which the capitalist owner takes in the form of profit. The relationship between the productivity of workers and the production of surplus value is therefore the more wealth he produces the less he will expect to see back or he will become all the poorer (Calhoun, Craig. 002). This shows us that an object which the worker produces becomes more distant from him as the bond created between the product and worker is lost, knowing that it will be owned or disposed of by another, the capitalist. In turn, the object that the worker has put a part of his life into stands against him as something alien. In all societies people us e skills that have been gained over time to produce goods that they need to live, exchange or sell. This is not the case in a capitalist environment because ‘‘the worker cannot use the things he produces to keep alive or to engage in further productive activity†¦ The worker needs, no matter how desperate, do not give him a license to lay hands on what these same hands have produced, for all his products are the property of another’’ (B Ollman, Alienation, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p143). This form of separation was highlighted by Marx as separation of the worker from the product of labour. He identified other main levels of separation within the idea of alienation. These consist of separation from the act of labour, from fellow members of society and from species being. When looking at separation from the activity of labour we mean that the worker is alienated by the lack of control in the process of production. This drainage of control completely restricts on how the worker can carry out his work. He is limited to a systematic process so the input of creativity almost becomes nothing as the worker would need to follow restrictions. With lack of input in the activity of labour, it would seem that an increased division of labour from the process would become more existent. For example in a car factory there would be a line to assemble a car together which consists of many different parts. With little say in the process the worker may be restricted to assembling only the tyres on the car. The activity would be a repetitive process and would separate the worker from the rest of the production line and in essence from his natural being as his potential is not being utilised. A third aspect of alienation is that man is a species-being. Marx argues that humans come across as social animals where he states ‘man makes his life activity itself the object of his will and of his consciousness. He has conscious life activity. It is not a determination with which he directly merges. Conscious life activity distinguishes man immediately from animal life activity. It is just because of this he is a specious-being’ (Calhoun, Craig. 2002. 38). What Marx is saying here is that we as humans have the ability to consciously interact with the world around us and it is in our character to do so. Also, the main thing that separates us from the animal world is that we know who we are and have a personal conscious of our self with a kind of relation to the natural world. In terms of capitalist relations of production when our labour is used, we are displaced from our species being as it turns labour into a physical act. We are effectively revoked from what nature has favoured us for over animal life. Also, by converting conscious being into physical being it makes human labour like the labour of animals (Morrison, K. 1995. 96). With this kind of alienation by being taken from our specious being we become creatures of physical activity all in tandem with the drive for profit for the capitalist owner. However under capitalism the development of production methods results in specialised division of labour which with some difference can increase society’s ability to produce, but the benefits in turn will flow in the favour the few private owners. The fourth factor of alienation that Marx brought forward is that from fellow humans and from our human social community. Those who live in a capitalist society are separated from fellow members as a class structure becomes evident. There is a structure of those who work and those who exploit the workers so for this reason Marx feels we are alienated from fellow members. Those in the capitalist society are only partially connected by the way of the market. In the market members will come to buy and sell goods that they produce or sell so by looking at it this way individuals are not connected properly but as separated representatives of different relations of production in competition with each other. We can then see the different forms of alienation that Marx sees existent in a capitalist society. The theory of alienation has taken many forms and laid down many points, but it may be important to consider a few criticisms that may exist within it. By looking at it from a modern perspective, some may consider that the concept is not fully defined in the sense that working for someone else or above with free movement is difficult. A main feature of Capitalism is that property rights and freedom of contract is what strengthens it. In a contract of employment if a worker is not satisfied with a job then it is possible for them to leave with notice and look for work elsewhere or even start up their own business. This level of autonomy in decision making is what one may argue shines light on capitalism. The government may play a role in alienating the capitalist owner as it may be through legislation that they need to follow specific rules. In turn it will filter through to the worker and that feeling of degradation may be situated elsewhere. In defence of the private owners the hate feeling of workers may point at the wrong direction when it is other factors that have contributed to their change. For example in 1912 employees went on strike from a textile factory in Massachusetts, U. S. A when owners reduced wages due to the reduction of working hours by the state from 56 to 54 hours. As the root of the change was the state, it should be them that are targeted not the owner. Marx’s theory of alienation therefore contests that in modern industrial production under a capitalist system workers will eventually lose control of their lives by the overwhelming conditions they are faced with at work. Through the different degrees of separation be it from the product of labour, the activity of labour, from species being or from fellow members of society Marx attempts to show that under the conditions of modern factory production the average worker is just like a cog in a machine where it is continuously worked and replaced by swarms of other parts. The new workers perform repetitive tasks which are closely under watch and with them they don’t have control over production, the products of labour and relations with each other. As a result the worker is taken away from his human nature. Overall, the role and conditions for the labourer has changed through time along with the changes in economic systems. Word Count: 2,475 Bibliography (B Ollman, Alienation, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p143) * (B Ollman, Alienation, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p143) Calhoun, Craig. (2002). Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. In: Classical Sociological Theory. Massachusetts: Blackwell. 35. * (Calhoun, Craig. 2002. 35) * (Calhoun, Craig. 2002. 38) Coser. (1977:50-53) Alienation. Available: http://www. cf. ac. uk/socsi/undergraduate/introsoc/marx7. html. Last accessed 10/11/2012. (Coser: 1977 Acc. 10/11/2012) Clapp, R. An Introduction to Dialectical Materialism. Available: http://www. marxism. org. uk/pack/dialetics. html. Last accessed 10/11/2012. * (Clapp,R: Acc 10/11/2012) Estefan, A. (2002). Dialectical Thinking. Available: http://www. palgrave. com/nursinghealth/mcallister/suggestions_thinking/example%20of%20teaching%20dialectical%20thinking. htm. Last accessed 10/11/2012. * (Estefan,A:2002 Acc 10/11/2012) Morrison, K. (1995). Laws of Historical development. In: Morrison, K Formations of Modern Social Thought. London: SAGE. 40. * (Morrison, K. 1995. 40) * (Morrison, K. 1995. 96) How to cite Marx’s Theory of Alienation, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Advantage and disadvantage of using computer free essay sample

A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations. There are many types of computers that we are using now like personal computers (desktop), mobile computers and mobile devices, game consoles, servers, mainframes, supercomputers, and embedded computers [1]. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem[2]. Every day, people around the world rely on different kinds of computers for a variety of areas. Computers can be used for educational purpose, in the bank, for entertainment, in railway stations and airports, in office, in hospital, in defence, for designing, and another category. However, computers contain both advantages and disadvatages. Almost every home, office, or school has a computer of some kind these days. The use of computer technology in learning allows the teacher to individualized the learning instructions as well as the technology grants the students the autonomy and making them to learn with their own [3]. In addition to this storing information on a computer disks is one of the most officient ways of keeping data. One computer disk can hold the same amount of information as several books[4]. Then, a computer with a CD-ROM drive can provide access to materials stored on a CD-ROM, including databases (containing descriptions of materials) and full-text (complete) materials. A computer linked to a modem can provide access to information available via e-mail and other Internet services, such as electronic newsletters and websites [5]. Moreover people can communicate with other computer owners through the internet, which offers nowdays everything from making freecalls from foreign countries to doing shoping [4]. The use of computer has also created some problems in society which are as follows. First, different tasks are performed automatically by using computers, so it’s the reason that reduces the need of people and increases unemployment in society. Second, many people use computers without positive purpose. They play games and chat for a long period of time. It causes wastage of time and energy. Young generation is now spending more time on the social media websites like Facebook, Twitter etc or texting their friends all night through smartphones which is bad for both studies and their health. And it also has adverse effects on the social life. Next, the data stored on a computer can be accessed by unauthorized persons through networks. It has created serious problems for the data security. Then, people use the computer for negative activities. They hack the credit card numbers of the people and misuse them or they can steal important data from big organizations. Moreover, the computers are used to store personal data of the people, so the privacy of a person can be violated if the personal and confidential records are not protected properly. In addition, the improper and prolonged use of computer can results in injuries or disorders of hands, wrists, elbows, eyes, necks and back. The users can avoid health risks by using the computer in proper position. They must also take regular breaks while using the computer for longer period of time. It is recommended to take a couple of minutes break after 30 minutes of computer usage. Finally, the computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are polluting the environment. The wasted parts of computer can release dangerous toxic materials. Green computer is a method to reduce the electricity consumed and environmental waste generated when using a computer. It includes recycling and regulating manufacturing processes. The used computers must be donated or disposed off properly[6]. There are many effects of excessive computer usage on people. Many people spend an excessive amount of time in front of the computer, so it means that they avoid doing meaningful activities such as sports and other social activities that can help them improve as a person as well as learning from working as a team. This causes severe loneliness followed by depression due to their lack of social interaction. For teens and children, their grades will slip as they prefer to surf the net or play games over finishing their homework. This will cause stress for both the parents and the kids [7]. Computers have impacted the way we live on a large scale. The positive impact is that people have access to a wealth of information on computers, without having to drive to the library for research, so wireless technology allows people to obtain information within minutes. Many online videos teach skills, such as learning a language. Then, Computers offer many opportunities to meet new people. The Internet can help people find others with common interests, form bonds with strangers and expand their social network. On the other hand, The more time a person spends on a computer, the less likely the person is to participate in physical activities, which can result in weight gain. The more dependent users are on their computers, the more likely these setbacks will affect their stress level and overall health. Children who use the Internet also are at risk of learning about different type of drugs and how they alter sensations or how crimes are committed [8]. In summary, computer is very essential for our daily lives eventhough it contain both pros and cons. Hence, there are some techneques to protect yourself from potential problems caused by computer usage. Good ergonomic design of workplaces and behavioural practices can create a working environment which will protect us against many of the debilitating effects of computer related injury [9]. You also regular stretche to relax your body while using computer. The most important thing is that you must go to see the doctor and get eye testing at least once every 2 years and more frequently if necessary [10].

Thursday, November 28, 2019

A contrastive Analysis of translating metaphors free essay sample

The Course Paper A contrastive Analysis of translating metaphors in Shakespeares Sonnets is devoted to the analysis of English metaphors, their lassification, the difficulties and mistakes that can appear in translating them into Romanian. The reason of the choice of the given topic is determined by an increasing interest in the subject, mainly the ways of using and translating metaphors of Shakesperean sonnets. The main goal of the study is to compare metaphors from sonnets of Shakespeare with the translation of sonnets of Shakespeare of other translators. The working hypothesis suggests that this topic would help Romanian learners to identify common and specific features by comparing peculiarities of translating metaphors in their native language. The esearch objectives of the work are: to examine the main linguistic peculiarities of metaphors; to study more closely the main approaches and types of classifications of metaphors in both languages; to make a linguistic analysis of selected examples and to make statistical analysis of the most interesting cases; to select the most suitable methods and techniques for translating metaphors. We will write a custom essay sample on A contrastive Analysis of translating metaphors or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The research methods applied in the study include: Linguistic analysis of metaphors of Shakespeare; Comparative analysis of metaphors of Shakespeare in English and Romanian languages; Semantic and pragmatic analysis of translation techniques used with etaphors; The research material is based on English and Romanian examples from Shakespeare sonnets,translated by Vasile Voiculescu. The study consists of an, Introduction, Two Chapters, Conclusions, Summary, Appendix and Bibliography. The Introduction provides the main goal, tasks and objectives of the Course Paper. It also includes the methods applied in the study and its practical application. It also includes the structure of the paper and its short description. Chapter l: General Theory Concerning the Notion of Metaphor focuses on the researches tied with the determination of the term metaphor and its main determinations in stylistics. There are many approaches dealing with classifications of metaphors in both English and Romanian languages. Here we may also see the comparison of shortening of two languages and to examine specific groups ot Romanian metaphors suggested by the linguists. And at the end we may see the translation peculiarities of English metaphors into Romanian and some proposed universal techniques. Chapter II: Practical Approach to the problem of Translating Metaphors consists of the analysis of 50 examples of shortenings according to the theoretical preliminaries and by deduces some statistics. It is aimed at underlining some classifications and approaches and by using some methods in translation in practice. In the Conclusion the most significant similarities and differences are mentioned as well as further possibilities for research. In the Summary the main results of the experimental research are stated and it is aimed at expressing the whole message briefly for those who want to find out what the study is about. The Bibliography contains the alphabetical list of the quoted literature (the sources used in the study for theoretical and practical research) and Dictionaries (sources used for hecking grammatical or linguistic mistakes). In the Appendix 50 English and 50 Romanian examples of metaphors are enclosed which served as study material.